Welding Defects - Causes and Prevention

Welding is an essential part of many industrial processes, and its quality greatly affects the durability and performance of the end product. Unfortunately, welding can experience various types of errors that can compromise the quality and strength of the joint. This article explores the most common welding defects, their causes, and ways to prevent them.

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Contents

1. Spatters

Cause: Spatter occurs when molten welding material splatters away from the weld and solidifies around it. This can result from excessive welding current or impurities.

Prevention: Adjust the welding current to the correct level and ensure that the welding surface is clean. Use adequate gas shielding.

hitsausvirheet hitsausroiskeet
hitsaus Muodonmuutokset

2. Transformation

Cause : The welding process can induce temperature fluctuations that can warp or alter the shape of the joint pieces.

Prevention : Monitor welding temperatures and use cooling systems as needed to ensure that deformations do not compromise the quality of the joint.

3. Hot crack in the middle of the weld:

Cause : Excessive contraction of the welding material can lead to cracks.

Prevention : Choose the right welding material and carefully monitor the welding process to avoid the formation of hot cracks.

kuumahalkeama hitsin keskellä
huono valokaaren syttyminen

4. Poor Arc Ignition:

Cause : Arc ignition issues can result from dirty or oxidized welding surfaces.

Prevention : Clean the welding surface thoroughly before welding and inspect the welding equipment.

5. Hydrogen Cracking in the Heat-Affected Zone:

Cause : Hydrogen cracks can form during welding when the metal absorbs hydrogen.

Prevention : Use clean material and ensure that welding parameters are correct.

vetyhalkeama muutos vyöhykkeellä
Liitosvirhe

6. Joint Defect:

Cause : Joint defects can result from poorly matched joint pieces or impurities on the surfaces.

Prevention : Ensure that the joint pieces fit well together and are clean before welding.

7. Crater Crack:

Cause : Crater cracks can occur when the welding current is abruptly terminated.

Prevention : Use post-heating or fill passes to end the welding process smoothly.

Kraaterihalkeama hitsaus
Reunahaava hitsauksessa

8. Edge Cracking:

Cause : Edge cracking can occur when the edges of joint pieces are left unprotected during welding.

Prevention : Use adequate gas shielding and ensure that the entire welding area is protected.

9. Insufficient Penetration, Slag, and Porosity:

Cause: These defects can occur if welding parameters are incorrectly set or if materials are not clean.

Prevention: Adjust welding parameters correctly and ensure that materials are clean and properly prepared.

Vajaa hitsaussyvyys
Huokoset hitsausvirhe

10. Porosity:

Cause: Gas bubbles form in the weld.

Prevention: Avoid excessive current power, ensure the correct gas flow, and prevent moisture from entering the joint.

Slag Inclusion

Cause: Molten slag becomes trapped in the weld.

Prevention: Use the correct welding speed, clean the joint area before welding, and avoid excessive electrode pressure.

Kuonasulkeutumat
Henri Vilkki Vilkkisweldings toimitusjohtaja

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